3. Plain English Vocabulary

Tran Nguyen

The table is collected from the following sources:

1. Michèle Asprey, “Plain Language for Layers’, The Federation Press, 4th, 2010, pp 233-240.

2. John Pease, ‘Plain English: A solution for effective communication’, Nov 2012, pp 30-4.

3. The government of South Australian, “Plain English: Good Practice Guide’.


Avoid Alternatives
a large number of many
a number of some or several or many or something more precise
a priori from assumed principles
ab initio from the start
abatement suspension
above (as in ‘see above’) be specific instead
abovementioned be specific instead
accede to grant, allow
accord give
accord respect to respect
accordingly so, therefore
acquire get
additional more
additionally also
adduce bring, produce
adjacent to next to, near, beside
adjusdicate determine/try
advert to mention
affix (seal) place
afforded given
afforded given
aforementioned often best omitted OR be specific instead
aforesaid best omitted
aggregate total, sum
agreeance agreement
albeit although, even though
all the
all and singular all
allege claim
alleviate ease, lessen, reduce
ambit reach or scope
ambit reach, scope
amend alter
ancillary associated
and/or and, or, either … or … or both
annex attach, add, include
any the
any and all all
approximately about
appurtenant to relating to, concerning
as a consequence of because of
as a matter of fact consider omitting
as a result of because of
as far as I am concerned avoid or minimize to use
as to about
as well as and
ascertain find out
ascertain find out
assist help
at a later date later
at any time omitted
at present now
at the end of the day avoid or minimize to use
at the place where
at the present time now
at this point in time now or currently or some such OR avoid or minimize to use
attempt try
attempt (verb) try
because of the fact that because or since
beforementioned be specific instead
below (as in see below) be specific instead
bequeath give
bona fide good faith, genuine, honest
by means of by
by reason of because of
by virtue of because of, under
case at bar this case
cease stop, end
cease and desist stop
chairman chair, chairperson
chattels goods
circumstances in which when or where
cognizant of aware of or knows
collaboration together collaborate
commence start, begin
conceal hide
concerning the matter of about
concerning the matter of about
congressman member of Congress
consensus of opinion consensus
consequence result
consequently so
considers expedient thinks fit
construe interpret, find meaning
contained in in
contiguous to next to
covenant and agree agree
curial of OR by a court
deem to be treat as, consider to be, take to be
demonstrate show
demur object, disagree
derive come from
desire want
despite the fact that although
determine (as in terminate) end, finish
devise give
dictated by required by
disbursements money spent, out-of-pocket expenses
dispatch send
do not hesitate to contact us avoid or minimise to use
does not have lacks
does not include excludes or omits
does not operate to does not
donate give
due to the fact that because
during the course of during
during the term of during
during the time that while
each the
each and every one avoid or minimize to use
echelon level
effected made, done
elucidate explain or perhaps clarify
employ use
enclosed please find we enclose, here is
endeavour try
ensue take place, follow
erroneous wrong
estop stop, prevent
et al and the others, the rest
et seq and those following
every the
evince show
exceeding, in excess of more than, over
excessive number of too many
exclusively only
exit leave
expedite hurry
expeditiously quickly, as soon as possible (or state a time limit)
expend spend
expiration end
extinguish end
extraneous external, outside
facilitate help (assist)
fails to does not
firstly, secondly, … first, second, …
follow after follow
for and on behalf of for
for the duration of during or while
for the period of for
for the purpose of doing to do
for the reason that because
foregoing earlier, or be specific
foreman supervisor, foreperson
forthwith immediately, as soon as possible, now (or state a time limit)
forward send, give
frequently often
from time to time omitted
fundamental basic
furnish give
give consideration to consider
give devise and bequeath give
going forward avoid or minimize to use
grant give
has a negative impact hurts or harms
hence therefore
henceforth from now on
hereafter after (and state date or time)
hereby omitted
herein in this agreement (or other document)
hereinafter after (and state date or time), from the date of this agreement
hereinafter called omitted, or use called
hereinbefore before (and state date or time), before the date of this agreement
hereof of it
hereon on it
hereto to it
heretofore before (and state date or time), before the date of this agreement
howsoever omitted or use however, no matter how
I would argue that / it is arguable that / it could be argued that don’t say what you’ll argue; just argue it
I would like to say/take this opportunity avoid or minimise to use
implement carry out, fulfil
in a case in which when, where
in accordance with following, according to
in an manner ly, e.g., “hastily” instead of “in a hasty manner”
in close proximity near
in close proximity near
in conjunction with with
in connection with about
in favour of for
in lieu of instead of, in place of
in light of because or since
in light of the fact that because or given that
in order to to
in personam personal, personally
in point of fact in fact (or omit altogether)
in pursuance of because of
in reference to about
in regard to about
in relation to about, for, as to
in respect of about, for, as to
in terms of in
in the course of during
in the event that/of if
in the future after the date of this agreement (or state date or time)
in the near future soon
in the past before the date of this agreement (or state date or time)
in total of consider omitting
in view of the fact that avoid or minimize to use
in witness whereof the parties have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals executed as a deed
inasmuch as because, since
incur become liable for, run up
indemnify, keep indemnified and save harmless indemnify (plus a clause stating that there is no need for the indemnified party to suffer loss before requiring payment
indicate show, tell, say or mean
indicia features, indicators
individual (noun) person
initiate begin, start
inquire ask
insofar as as far as
institute proceedings begin or start proceedings, sue
instrument document
inter alia among other things
interlocutory temporary, pending a final hearing
irrespective of whether or not, even if
is able to can
is able/unable to can/cannot
is authorized may, can
is binding on binds
is desirous of wants
is desirous of wants
is dispositive of disposes of
is dispositive of disposes of
is empowered may
is entitled to may, can
is not entitled to, has no power to cannot, must not
is not permitted to may not, must not
is not required to need not
is permitted to may
is prohibited from must not
is required to must
is unable to cannot
issue give, publish, produce, deliver, start
it has been determined that Don ’t use this
it is apparent that clearly or don ’t use it
it is clear that clearly or don ’t use it
it is important to note that omitted
it is lawful for may, can
it may necessitate you may have to
it should be noted that Don ’t use this
last but not least avoid or minimize to use
last will and testament will
locate find
lodge send in, put in, file
loss occasioned thereby resulting loss
make a statement state
make an application apply
make payment pay
make provision provide
manifest (ad) clear, obvious
manifest (verb) show
manner way
material (facts, evidence) relevant
means and includes means, includes
mens rea state of mind
methodology method
mitigate lessen, reduce
modify change
moneys/monies money
mutatis mutandis with the necessary changes
mutually agree agree
necessitate require, need
negatively affect hurt or harm or decrease
not … except only if
not … unless only if
not able unable
not accept reject
not certain uncertain
not less than at least
not many few
not more than at most
not often rarely
not the same different
not unlike similar or alike
not until only when
nothing in this clause (document) this clause (document) does not
notify tell
notwithstanding despite, even if
now on the date of this agreement, or state date
now therefore this agreement witnesseth omitted
null and void void
null void and of no effect has no effect
numerous many
obiter, obiter dictum part of the judgment not essential to the decision in the case, passing remark incidental comment
objective (noun) goal
observe see, watch
obtain get
on a number of occasions often, sometimes
on a weekly basis avoid or minimise to use
on behalf of for
on each occasion when whenever
on the basic of by, from
on the part of by
on the part of by
on two separate occasions twice
onus responsibility
originally created created
otherwise than except
owing to the fact that because or since
pari passu equally
per stirpes the share of a deceased parent is divided equally among their children, with descendants of a deceased child dividing the deceased child’s share between them
period of time time or period
permit let or allow
personnel people
peruse read
please find attached avoid or minimise to use
point in time time or point
portion part
possess have
post hoc hindsight
presently or currently now
prima facie at first glance
prior to before
procure get
propound propose, put forward
proscribe prohibit, forbid, not allow
provide give
provided that but, if
provision of law law
punctually on time
purchase buy
purchaser buyer
pursuant to under, according to
quantum amount
rate of speed speed
ratio decidendi reasons for decision
re omitted, or use about
reasonable man reasonable person
rectify make good
referred to as called
relating to about
release remise and forever quitclaim release
remainder rest
remit send
render make, give
render assistance help
request ask
require need
requisite required, necessary
res ipsa loquitur is speaks for itself
rest residue and remainder rest, balance
retain keep
rights of man human rights
said (adjective) the or this, e.g., “said contract” should almost always be changed to “the contract”
said, the the, that, those
same, the use a pronoun
save except
save and except except
set forth in in
shall (future) will
shall (imperative) must
shall (present) draft in the present tense
sounding in resulting in, reflected by, leading to
submit propose, put forward
subsequent later
subsequent to after
subsequently then, after, later
substantiate prove
such the, that, those or use a pronoun
sui generis the only one of its kind
sui juris of full legal capacity
terminate end, finish
termination or terminate end (sometimes)
terms and conditions terms
testament will
testamentary disposition will
the day and year first hereinbefore written on the date of this agreement (or state the date)
the fact that that
the instant case this case
the manner in which how
the premises (in the sense of ‘the matters’) this agreement, this deed
the totality of all
thence afterwards, then
thenceforth afterwards, from then on
thereby by it
therefor for
therein in it
thereinafter afterwards, from then on, later
thereof of it
thereon on it
thereto to it
therewith with it
these presents this agreement, this deed
to be perfectly honest avoid or minimize to use
to the effect that so
to wit namely
uberrimae fidei utmost good faith
undermentioned omitted or use as mentioned later, or be specific
undersigned (the) me (or use a name)
undue inappropriate, not called for
until such time as until
unto to
upon on
upon the {occurrence of X happening} when X happens
upon the expiration at the end
utilise use
vendor seller
very consider omitting
was aware knew
we should point out that omitted
whatsoever omitted, or use whatever, no matter what
where (case) when, if
WHEREAS RECITALS, BACKGROUNDS, INTRODUCTION
whereby by it, by which
whereof of it
whereon on it
wheresoever omitted, or use wherever, no matter where
whilever while, whenever, as long as
whosoever omitted, or use whoever, no matter who
will and testament will
will suffice will do
with a view to to
with regard to about
with respect to about
with the result that so that
workman worker
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